Tag Archives: WPA2

WPA2 Cracking Simplified By New Research

It has only been approximately nine months since the last vulnerability disclosure regarding WPA2 wireless encryption and we have another disclosure. The developer of the well known password cracking application; Hashcat, Jens “atom” Steube has detailed how to more easily retrieve and crack the Pairwise Master Key Identifier (PMKID)(defined).

Why should this vulnerability be considered important?
Previous vulnerability disclosures required the attacker to capture wireless traffic and wait until they recorded a full authentication handshake. This newer disclosure requires only a single frame (defined) which the attacker can obtain on demand by attempting to access the WiFi network. The PMKID is then cracked (using a brute force attack (defined) to obtain the wireless encryption key (the Pre-Shared Key (PSK)). This vulnerability allows the attacker to begin a brute force attack much easier than before,

To confirm that both the router and the client device know the PSK a PMK is used and is thus a normal part of the 4 way handshake used with WPA2. This new vulnerability will work against routers using 802.11i/p/q/r while roaming is enabled according to Jens Steube.

Further Technical Details of this vulnerability are as follows:
The PMKID is contained within the RSN IE ((Robust Security Network Information Element) field of an EAPOL (defined) frame . How the PMKID is generated is described in more detail in Steube’s post.

The MAC address (defined) of the wireless access point can be determined by the attacker allowing them to know the manufacturer of the device they are attacking. This allows them to pre-generate patterns and pass them into the Hashcat tool speeding up the attack. A PSK of 10 characters in length will take about 8 days to crack using a 4 GPU (defined) system.

How can I protect myself from this vulnerability?
Steube recommends using a password manager to generate a PSK of 20 to 30 characters in length. For your information; the PSK used by my router has been for many years 64 characters long. While it makes entering this into a device a real pain (however I don’t do this often). Moreover I use shorter temporary guest passwords for friends devices (it also prevents them accessing my true intranet); it makes the router more secure against an attack such as this.

You can also make the attackers work harder by employing WPA2-Enterprise (rather than the more regular WPA2-AES). WPA3 is not thought to be vulnerable to this method of attack.

Thank you.

WPA2 KRACK Vulnerability: What you need to know

Last Sunday, the early signs of a vulnerability disclosure affecting the extensively used Wi-Fi protected access (WPA2) protocol were evident. The next day, disclosure of the vulnerability lead to more details. The vulnerability was discovered by  two researchers Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) while examining OpenBSD’s implementation of the WPA2 four way handshake.

Why should this vulnerability be considered important?
On Monday 16th October, the KRACK (key re-installation attacks) vulnerability was disclosed. This vulnerability was found within the implementation of the WPA2 protocol rather than any single device making it’s impact much more widespread. For example, vulnerable devices include Windows, OpenBSD (if not already patched against it), Linux, Apple iOS, Apple macOS and Google Android.

If exploited this vulnerability could allow decryption, packet replay, TCP connection hijacking and if WPA-TKIP (defined) or GCMP (explained) are used; the attacker can inject packets (defined) into a victim’s data, forging web traffic.

How can an attacker exploit this vulnerability?
To exploit the vulnerability an attacker must be within range of a vulnerable Wi-Fi network in order to perform a man in the middle attack (MiTM)(defined). This means that this vulnerability cannot be exploited over the Internet.

This vulnerability occurs since the initial four way handshake is used to generate a strong and unique key to encrypt the traffic between wireless devices. A handshake is used to authenticate two entities (in this example a wireless router and a wireless device wishing to connect to it) and to establish the a new key used to communicate.

The attacker needs to manipulate the key exchange (described below) by replaying cryptographic handshake messages (which blocks the message reaching the client device) causing it to be re-sent during the third step of the four way handshake. This is allowed since wireless communication is not 100% reliable e.g. a data packet could be lost or dropped and the router will re-send the third part of the handshake. This is allowed to occur multiple times if necessary. Each time the handshake is re-sent the attacker can use it to gather how cryptographic nonces (defined here and here) are created (since replay counters and nonces are reset) and use this to undermine the entire encryption scheme.

How can I protect myself from this vulnerability?
AS described in this CERT knowledge base article.; updates from vendors will be released in the coming days and weeks. Apple (currently a beta update) and Microsoft already have updates available. OpenBSD also resolved this issue before the disclosure this week.

Microsoft within the information they published for the vulnerability discusses how when a Windows device enters a low power state the vulnerable functionality of the wireless connection is passed to the underlying Wi-Fi hardware. For this reason they recommend contacting the vendor of that Wi-Fi hardware to request updated drivers (defined).

Links to affected hardware vendors are available from this ICASI Multi-Vendor Vulnerability Disclosure statement. Intel’ security advisory with relevant driver updates is here. The wireless vendor, Edimax also posted a statement with further updates to follow. A detailed but easy to use list of many vendors responses is here. Since I use an Asus router, the best response I could locate is here.

Update: 21st October 2017:
Cisco have published a security advisory relating to the KRACK vulnerability for its wireless products. At the time of writing no patches were available but the advisory does contain a workaround for some of the affected products.

The above updates are software fixes but updates will also be made available for devices in the form of firmware updates e.g. for wireless routers, smartphones and Internet of Things (IoT)(defined) devices. For any wireless devices you own, please check with the manufacturer/vendor for available updates with the above CERT article and vendor response list detailing many of the common vendors.

Thank you.