Tag Archives: Netgear

March 2020 Update Summary

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Update: 28th March 2020
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I have added the details of the security updates released by Apple on the 24th March near the end of this post. Thank you.

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Update: 25th March 2020
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Adobe has released a further update for Creative Cloud Desktop. I have added the details below to the Adobe updates list.

VMware have also released VMware Fusion 11.5.3 to more completely address a previously patched vulnerability. Details are below in the VMware updates list.

Thank you.

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Update: 23rd March 2020
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Since originally writing this post, Adobe published their security updates a week later than usual. Further details are listed below.

Thank you.

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Adobe
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Adobe Acrobat and Reader: 13x Priority 2 CVEs (defined)resolved (9x Critical and 4x Important severity)
Adobe Bridge: 2x Priority 3 CVEs resolved (2x Critical severity)
Adobe ColdFusion:  2x Priority 2 CVEs resolved (2x Critical severity)
Adobe Creative Cloud Desktop: 1x Priority 2 CVE resolved (1x Critical severity)
Adobe Experience Manager: 1x Priority 2 CVE resolved (1x Important severity)
Adobe Genuine Integrity Service: 1x Priority 3 CVE resolved (1x Important severity)
Adobe Photoshop: 21x Priority 3 CVEs resolved (15x Critical and 6x Important severity)

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Update: 15th March 2020:
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Security researcher Kevin Beaumont has provided further details of the critical SMBv3.1 vulnerability affecting Windows 10 Version 1903 and 1909. In summary the vulnerability is not trivial to exploit and the number of systems at the time of writing (13th March) vulnerability to the exploit had already dropped by 25%.

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Update: 12th March 2020:
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Microsoft have released an update to resolve the SMBv3 vulnerability now designated CVE-2020-0796, (EternalDarkness or SMBGhost) please apply it to any Windows 10 Server or Windows 10 workstation system running Windows 10 Version 1903 or 1909 as soon as possible. Please also make certain that such systems are not exposing port 445 to the internet (please seethe FAQ in their information on the relevant update).

An internet scan by security researchers of vulnerable estimates that there are 48,000 vulnerable Windows 10 systems. You can use the ollypwn scan (created by a Danish security researcher) can be used to check if a system is vulnerable.

I wish to add the following useful clarification (which was written before the Microsoft security update became available) from Richard Melick, senior technical product manager at Automox in relation to this SMBv3 vulnerability:

“Considering that SMBv3 is not as widely used as SMBv1, the potential immediate impact of this threat is most likely lower than past vulnerabilities. But that does not mean organizations should be disregarding any endpoint hardening that can happen now while Microsoft works on a patch…it’s better to respond today and disable SMBv3 and block TCP port 445. Respond now and vulnerabilities end today”.

To all of my readers, please stay safe during these challenging times. Thank you.

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Update: 11th March 2020
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As expected, yesterday Microsoft  released their scheduled updates to resolve 115 CVEs (defined). Unusually for this month, Adobe has not released any updates.

Microsoft’s monthly summary; lists Known Issues for 14 Microsoft products but all have workarounds or resolution steps listed just as the previous month’s did.

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A further useful source of update related information is the US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) (please see the “Information on Security Updates” heading of the “Protecting Your PC” page):

https://www.us-cert.gov/

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As always for this month’s Microsoft updates, I will prioritize the order of installation below:
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For Windows or Windows Server system (Version 1903 and 1909) systems that uses SMBv3, please follow Microsoft’s guidance in the following security advisory while an update is not yet available. Please apply the update as soon as it is made available:

ADV200005 | Microsoft Guidance for Disabling SMBv3 Compression

Please also make certain that TCP port 445 is blocked at the enterprise perimeter firewall to prevent exploitation.

This vulnerability is “wormable” meaning that similar to the WannaCry malware and the BlueKeep vulnerability if exploited it may lead to a very large malware outbreak in a very short time.

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Windows LNK: CVE-2020-0684
Windows Media Foundation: CVE-2020-0801 , CVE-2020-0807 , CVE-2020-0809,  CVE-2020-0869
Microsoft Internet Explorer: CVE-2020-0824
Microsoft Browsers: CVE-2020-0768

Microsoft Scripting Engine: CVE-2020-0830 , CVE-2020-0847, CVE-2020-0833 , CVE-2020-0832, CVE-2020-0829 , CVE-2020-0813 , CVE-2020-0826, CVE-2020-0827 , CVE-2020-0825 , CVE-2020-0831, CVE-2020-0811, CVE-2020-0828, CVE-2020-0848, CVE-2020-0823, CVE-2020-0812

Microsoft GDI+: CVE-2020-0881, CVE-2020-0883
Microsoft Word: CVE-2020-0852
Microsoft Dynamics: CVE-2020-0905
Microsoft Edge: CVE-2020-0816

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Please install the remaining updates at your earliest convenience.

As per standard best practice; I would recommend backing up the data on any device for which you are installing updates to prevent data loss in the rare event that any update causes unexpected issues.

I have also provided further details of updates available for other commonly used applications and devices below.

To all of my readers, please stay safe during these challenging times. Thank you.

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Netgear
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On the 3rd of March, Netgear released 25 security advisories for its modem-router gateways, approximately 40 routers and a range extender. The vulnerability range up to critical in severity.

If you own a Netgear router, range extender or modem-router gateway, please use the guidance within this article (many thanks to Tom’s Guide for this advice and the appropriate how to check for updates steps) to locate your Netgear device model e.g. R6400 and to match it against the available security bulletins to check if your device requires a firmware (defined) update sometimes called a software update. Please install the update if one is available. The above linked to article also describes the varied methods to update your Netgear device.

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Intel Security Advisories
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Intel have released a series of security advisories this month. The advisories are prioritised below. If you use any of these products, software or devices, please update them as soon as possible especially in the case of the high severity advisories.

High
Intel Smart Sound Technology Advisory
BlueZ Advisory
Intel NUC Firmware Advisory

Medium
Intel MAX 10 FPGA Advisory
Intel Processors Load Value Injection Advisory
Snoop Assisted L1D Sampling Advisory
Intel Optane DC Persistent Memory Module Management Software Advisory
Intel FPGA Programmable Acceleration Card N3000 Advisory
Intel Graphics Drivers Advisory

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Mozilla Firefox
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Yesterday, Mozilla released Firefox 74 and Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release) 68.6 to resolve the following vulnerabilities:

Firefox 74.0: Addresses 6x high severity CVEs, 6x medium severity CVEs and 1x low CVE

Firefox 68.6 ESR: Addresses 5x high severity CVEs and 3x medium severity CVEs

Firefox 74 also removes support TLS 1.0 (what is TLS, defined) and 1.1 as per Mozilla’s previous timelime, adds a Facebook Container add-in to limit how much the social tracks you across other sites and blocks the ability for other applications to install Firefox add-ons without your knowledge or consent. Further details of these features and other features added can be found within this article (my thanks to Lawrence Abrams of Bleepingcomputer.com for this information).

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Google Chrome
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Early last week, Google released Chrome version 80.0.3987.132 for Linux, Mac and Windows to resolve 4 security vulnerabilities with the most severe being of high severity.

Google Chrome updates automatically and will apply the update the next time Chrome is closed and then re-opened. Chrome can also be updated immediately by clicking the Options button (it looks like 3 vertically stacked dots) in the upper right corner of the window and choosing “About Google Chrome” from the menu. Follow the prompt to Re-launch Chrome for the updates to take effect.

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Apple Security Updates:
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On the 24th of March Apple made available the following updates. Notable fixes affect the kernels of macOS, iOS and iPadOS, WebKit (the renderer of Safari), Bluetooth and Safari.

These updates bring Safari to version 13.1 and add updates to its Intelligence Tracking Prevention (ITP) privacy feature while also introducing a block on all 3rd party cookies (defined) by default.

Further details for these updates are as follows:
Apple iOS v13.4 and iPadOS 13.4 (resolves 35x CVEs (defined))
Apple tvOS 13.4: Resolves 20x CVEs.
Apple watchOS 6.2: Resolves 17x CVEs
Apple watchOS 5.3.6 (no CVEs resolved)
Apple iTunes version 12.10.5 for Windows: Resolves 13x CVEs
macOS Catalina 10.15.4, Security Update 2020-002 Mojave, Security Update 2020-002 High Sierra: Resolves 27x CVEs.
Safari 13.1: Resolves 11 CVEs
Apple iCloud for Windows 10.9.3: Resolves 13 CVEs
Apple iCloud for Windows 7.18: Resolves 13 CVEs
Xcode 11.4: Resolves 1 CVE (?: Apple’s post provides little details)

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Please see these links from Apple for advice on backing up your iPhone and iPad. Advice for updating tvOS is available here while the steps for updating the Apple Watch are available here.

As always; further details of these updates are available on Apple’s dedicated security updates page.

For advice on how to install updates for Apple devices, please see the steps detailed at the end of this Sophos blog post as well as this link (from my “Protecting Your PC” page).

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VMware
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VMware have so far released 2 security advisories this month to resolve vulnerabilities within the following products:

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Advisory 1: Severity: Critical:
VMware Workstation Pro / Player (Workstation)
VMware Fusion Pro / Fusion (Fusion)
VMware Horizon Client for Windows
VMware Remote Console for Windows (VMRC for Windows)
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Advisory 2: Severity: Important:
VMware Workstation Pro / Player (Workstation)
VMware Fusion Pro / Fusion (Fusion)
VMware Remote Console for Mac (VMRC for Mac)
VMware Horizon Client for Mac
VMware Horizon Client for Windows
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Advisory 2 (above) has been updated by VMware to state VMware Fusion has been updated to version 11.5.3 to more comprehensively resolve the vulnerability designated CVE-2020-3950. Please make certain if you use VMwre Fusion that it is the latest version available.

If you use any of the above products, please review the adobe advisories and install the applicable security updates as soon as possible.

Cable Modems Vulnerable to Cable Haunt Vulnerabilities

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TL;DR
If you are cautious with the links you click and when processing your email, you will likely not be vulnerable to these flaws. If you use a cable modem for your internet connection, you should check if your modem is vulnerable and follow the step “What should I do” mentioned below.
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In mid-January it was discovered the firmware (defined) of many internet service provider (ISP) modems (specifically combined modems and routers in the same device) was vulnerable to remote takeover by attackers. These vulnerabilities have been named Cable Haunt as an easier to remember reference.

How widespread are the affected modems?
At the least the following manufacturers are affected with up to 200 million vulnerable modems mainly based in Europe but other regions e.g. North America are also affected. Please see also the FAQ “Am I Affected” on the Cable Haunt website.

Arris
COMPAL
Netgear
Sagemcom
Technicolor

Other brands of modems confirmed by the wider community as being vulnerable are:

Cisco EPC3928AD
Cisco/Technicolor DPC3216
Humax HGB10R-02
SMC Electronics SMC D3-CCR-v2
Zoom 5370
Virgin Media’s Super Hub 3 and 4 do not appear to be vulnerable.

How serious are these vulnerabilities?
While the vulnerabilities are serious in their impact, namely complete remote compromise of the device, how an attacker could exploit the vulnerabilities to achieve that outcome is not trivial. As per the researchers:

“This could be exploited by an attacker if you visit a malicious website or if they embed the code, for instance in an advert, on a trusted website. It is important to point out that this is not the only attack vector that can be employed, vulnerable mail-clients, exploited IoT devices, public networks etc. are also viable attack vectors”.

Summary of the Technical Aspects of these vulnerabilities
The vulnerability designated formally as CVE-2019-19494 is a buffer overflow (defined) that if exploited could allow remote code execution (defined: the ability for an attacker to remotely carry out any action of their choice on your device) with kernel level (defined) privileges by using JavaScript (defined) within your web browser. The buffer overflow can be exploited using (according to the researchers: “a carefully crafted message the modem can be manipulated to execute arbitrary code specified by a remote attacker”.

An important aspect of the above described exploit is that while the attack is a remote attack (using a victim’s web browser) it results in the local compromise of the modems spectrum analyser. Linked to this; a DNS re-bind attack (defined) can be used to enable an attacker the ability to access the compromised spectrum analyser. The result of the above exploits provides the attackers with (according to the researchers): “full remote control over the entire unit, and all the traffic that flows through it, while being invisible for both the user and ISP,”. This capability could be used to:

  1. Intercept private messages
  2. Redirect traffic
  3. Add the modems to botnets
  4. Replace the devices firmware
  5. Instruct the device to ignore remote system updates (which could be used to patch the vulnerabilities, complicating the resolution of a compromised device by its legitimate owner/user)

How can I protect my organisation or myself from these vulnerabilities?\
For in-depth answers from the researchers to answer this question in the context of an internet service provider (ISP), the user of the modem (e.g. within a small business), as an individual or a security researcher, please see the question “What Should I do” on the dedicated Cable Haunt website:

https://cablehaunt.com/

According to Graham Cluley: “Some ISPs in Scandinavia appear to have remotely patched the cable modems of their customers, but others have some catching up to do it seems.
If your cable modem contains a Broadcom chipset you might want to contact your ISP and ask them what they’re doing about this”.

Thank you.

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My sincere thanks to the Cable Haunt researchers Alexander Dalsgaard Krog (Lyrebirds), Jens Hegner Stærmose (Lyrebirds), Kasper Kohsel Terndrup (Lyrebirds) and Simon Vandel Sillesen (Independent) as well as Graham Cluley for the excellent information which this blog post is built upon.

August 2019 Update Summary

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Update: 13th August 2019
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Earlier today Adobe and Microsoft released large collections of security updates. They resolve 119 and 93 vulnerabilities (respectively).

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Adobe After Effects: 1x Priority 3 vulnerability resolved (Important severity)

Adobe Character Animator: 1x Priority 3 vulnerability resolved (Important severity)

Adobe Premiere Pro CC: 1x Priority 3 vulnerability resolved (Important severity)

Adobe Prelude CC: 1x Priority 3 vulnerability resolved (Important severity)

Adobe Creative Cloud Application: 4x Priority 2 vulnerabilities resolved (2x Critical and 2 Important severity)

Adobe Acrobat and Reader: 76x Priority 2 vulnerabilities resolved (76x Important severity)

Adobe Experience Manager:1x priority 1 vulnerability resolved (1x Critical severity)

Adobe Photoshop CC: 34x priority 3 vulnerabilities resolved (22x Critical and 12x Important)

If you use any of these Adobe products, please apply the necessary updates as soon as possible especially for Adobe Acrobat/Reader, Photoshop CC and Experience Manager

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This month’s list of Known Issues from Microsoft is available within their monthly summary page and applies to all currently supported operating systems. Not all issues have workarounds at this time. The up to date list is available from their summary page. For Windows 7, for customers with Symantec Antivirus or Norton Antivirus, a hold has been put on the updates from being offered in Windows Updates due to ”The Windows updates are blocked or deleted by the antivirus program during installation, which may then cause Windows to stop working or fail to start”. The Symantec article linked to at this time is a blank template.

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US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) (please see the “Information on Security Updates” heading of the “Protecting Your PC” page):

https://www.us-cert.gov/

A further useful source of update related information is the Calendar of Updates.

News/announcements of updates in the categories of General SoftwareSecurity Software and Utilities are available on their website. The news/announcements are very timely and (almost always) contain useful direct download links as well as the changes/improvements made by those updates (where possible).

If you like and use it, please also consider supporting that entirely volunteer run website by donating.

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For this month’s Microsoft updates, I will prioritize the order of installation below:
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Microsoft Remote Desktop Services (RDS):  CVE-2019-1181 CVE-2019-1182  CVE-2019-1222, and CVE-2019-1226 (CVE, defined)

Microsoft Graphics Component CVE-2019-1144  CVE-2019-1152  CVE-2019-1150 CVE-2019-1145 CVE-2019-1149

Microsoft Word CVE-2019-1201 CVE-2019-1205

Microsoft Outlook CVE-2019-1200 CVE-2019-1199

Scripting Engine CVE-2019-1133

Chakra Scripting Engine CVE-2019-1141 CVE-2019-1131 CVE-2019-1196 CVE-2019-1197 CVE-2019-1140 CVE-2019-1139

LNK Remote Code Execution Vulnerability CVE-2019-1188

Windows DHCP Client CVE-2019-0736 CVE-2019-1213

Windows Hyper-V CVE-2019-0720 CVE-2019-0965

Windows VBScript Engine CVE-2019-1183

====================

Please install the remaining updates at your earliest convenience.

As per standard best practice; I would recommend backing up the data on any device for which you are installing updates to prevent data loss in the rare event that any update causes unexpected issues.

I have provided further details of updates available for other commonly used applications below.

Thank you.

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Mozilla Firefox
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In mid-August Mozilla released Firefox 68.0.2 and Firefox ESR 68.0.2 to resolve a moderate information disclosure vulnerability. Please make certain your installation is version 68.0.2 or above to resolve this issue.

Details of how to install updates for Firefox are here. If Firefox is your web browser of choice, if you have not already done so, please update it as soon as possible to benefit from the above changes.

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Google Chrome
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In late August the Centre for Internet Security released a security advisory for users of Google Chrome to update to version 76.0.3809.132 or later. Prior versions were vulnerable to a use-after-free (defined) vulnerability which could have allowed remote code execution (allowing an attacker to carry out any action of their choice).

Google Chrome updates automatically and will apply the update the next time Chrome is closed and then re-opened. Chrome can also be updated immediately by clicking the Options button (it looks like 3 stacked small horizontal lines, sometimes called a “hamburger” button) in the upper right corner of the window and choosing “About Google Chrome” from the menu. Follow the prompt to Re-launch Chrome for the updates to take effect.

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VMware
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VMware earlier this month released a security advisory to resolve 2 Important severity vulnerabilities within the following products:

VMware vSphere ESXi (ESXi)
VMware Workstation Pro / Player (Workstation)
VMware Fusion Pro / Fusion (Fusion)

An attacker could leverage the vulnerability CVE-201-5521 (from the above linked to advisory) to also exploit CVE-2019-5684 to exploit Nvidia’s GPU driver (see below) to gain arbitrary code execution on a system.

If you use the above VMware products particularly with a Nvidia GPU, please review the advisory and apply the necessary updates.

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Nvidia
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Nvidia late last week issued a related security advisory to that of the above VMware advisory. Nvidia’s advisory resolves 5 locally exploitable vulnerabilities meaning that an attacker would first need to compromise your system before exploiting the vulnerabilities to elevate their privileges (defined). The steps to install the drivers are located here. If you use affected Nvidia graphics cards, please consider updating your drivers (defined) to the most recent available.

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Canon Digital Cameras PTP (Picture Transfer Protocol) Vulnerabilities
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Canon digital cameras utilising this protocol are potentially vulnerable to a complete takeover of the device while connected to a host PC or a hijacked mobile device.

As per this Canon advisory, please ensure your camera is using the most recent firmware update and that you follow the workarounds listed in the above advisory.

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VideoLAN VLC
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On the 19th of August, VideoLAN released VLC version 3.0.8 resolving 13 security issues (some assigned more than one CVE). In a recent presentation their President, Jean-Bapiste Kempf explains the challenges they face in maintaining the security of the project. The short slide deck gives a behind the scenes look at their work including the tools they use to make their code safer.

The list of challenges isn’t too dissimilar from a regular commercial company e.g.: a complex piece of software (15 million lines of code) with approximately 100 dependencies but does highlight issues with hostile bug bounty hunters etc. Future releases will include security bulletins where relevant.

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Valve Steam Gaming Client
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In late August, Valve released 2 security updates for their Steam gaming client. Further information on the disclosure (defined) is detailed here while details of the updates are available here and here (albeit in summary only). The Steam client by default updates automatically. Please open it and allow it to update to resolve these vulnerabilities.

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Software Updates for HP , Lexmark, Kyocera , Brother , Ricoh and Xerox Printers
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The following links details the vulnerabilities found by security researchers within these printers and link to the relevant software updates:

HP
https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-hp-printers/?research=Technical+advisories

Lexmark
https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-lexmark-printers/?research=Technical+advisories

Kyocera
https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-kyocera-printers/

Brother
https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-brother-printers/

Ricoh
https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-ricoh-printers/

Xerox (PDF)
https://securitydocs.business.xerox.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/cert_Security_Mini_Bulletin_XRX19R_for_P3320.pdf

https://www.nccgroup.trust/us/our-research/technical-advisory-multiple-vulnerabilities-in-xerox-printers/

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Security Updates for Corporate and Consumer 4G Modems
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G Richter a security researcher from Pen Test Partners disclosed the following vulnerabilities during DEF CON:

Netgear
Netgear Nighthawk M1 Mobile router (currently no vendor advisory):
Cross-site request forgery (CSRF)(defined) bypass: CVE-2019-14526
Post-authentication command injection: CVE-2019-14527

TP-Link
TP-Link’s M7350 4G LTE Mobile wireless router (currently no vendor advisory):
CVE-2019-12103 – Pre-Authentication Command Execution
CVE-2019-12104 – Post-Authentication Command Execution

ZTE
MF910 and MF65+ Advisory
http://support.zte.com.cn/support/news/LoopholeInfoDetail.aspx?newsId=1010203

MF920 Advisory
http://support.zte.com.cn/support/news/LoopholeInfoDetail.aspx?newsId=1010686

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HTTP/2 Vulnerabilities
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8 HTTP/2 DoS (defined) vulnerabilities have been responsibly disclosed by Netflix and Google. According to CloudFlare these vulnerabilities are already being exploited “We have detected and mitigated a handful of attacks but nothing widespread yet”.

Please review the affected vendors matrix within the following CERT advisory and apply the necessary updates:

https://kb.cert.org/vuls/id/605641/

Further information
https://github.com/Netflix/security-bulletins/blob/master/advisories/third-party/2019-002.md

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2019/08/14/http2_flaw_server/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-http-2-flaws-expose-unpatched-web-servers-to-dos-attacks/

Thank you.

VPNFilter: Overview and removal

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Update: 24th October 2018:
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Researchers from Cisco’s Talos team have discovered further capabilities of this malware. As detailed below the 3rd stage of the malware features:

Provides plugins for the RAT (defined below in the original post) to extend its functionality.

However, the team was able to determine the following extra capabilities:

  1. Packet sniffing (obtain information from passing data packets (defined) on a network connection)
  2. JavaScript (defined) injection used to deliver exploit (a small piece of software used to trigger a known vulnerability to the advantage of an attacker) to a compromised device (most likely a router).
  3. Encrypted tunnelling (defined) to hide data the malware steals as well as the existing command and control data traffic.
  4. Creating network maps (defined)
  5. Remote connection/administration via SSH (Secure Shell)(defined)
  6. Port forwarding (defined)
  7. Create SOCK5 (defined) proxies (defined)
  8. DDoS (defined)

The good news about this malware is that from the Talos team’s research it does not appear that any malware samples remain active. However; they caution it is not possible to assume that this malware has finished its malicious actions and the possibility of its return remains.

Thank you.

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Update: 20th June 2018:
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If you would prefer a video or a podcast of how to remove this malware from your router, this Sophos blog post provides links to both. The video is hosted on Facebook but a Facebook account isn’t required to view it. Sophos also provide an archive of previous videos on the same Facebook page.

Thank you.

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Update: 6th June 2018:
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The Cisco Talos team have provided an updated list of known affected routers. I have added these to the list below with “(new)” indicating a new device on the existing list. I have also updated the malware removal advice to provide easier to follow steps.

Thank you.

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Original Post:
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In late May; a strain of malware known as VPNFilter affecting routers from the vendors listed below was publicly disclosed by the Cisco Talos team:

Affected vendors:
Asus RT-AC66U (new)
Asus RT-N10 (new)
Asus RT-N10E (new)
Asus RT-N10U (new)
Asus RT-N56U (new)
Asus RT-N66U (new)
D-Link DES-1210-08P (new)
D-Link DIR-300 (new)
D-Link DIR-300A (new)
D-Link DSR-250N (new)
D-Link DSR-500N (new)
D-Link DSR-1000 (new)
D-Link DSR-1000N (new)
Huawei HG8245 (new)
Linksys E1200
Linksys E2500
Linksys E3000 (new)
Linksys E3200 (new)
Linksys E4200 (new)
Linksys RV082 (new)
Linksys WRVS4400N
Mikrotik CCR1009 (new)
Mikrotik Cloud Core Router (CCR) CCR1016
Mikrotik CCR1036
Mikrotik CCR1072
Mikrotik CRS109 (new)
Mikrotik CRS112 (new)
Mikrotik CRS125 (new)
Mikrotik RB411 (new)
Mikrotik RB450 (new)
Mikrotik RB750 (new)
Mikrotik RB911 (new)
Mikrotik RB921 (new)
Mikrotik RB941 (new)
Mikrotik RB951 (new)
Mikrotik RB952 (new)
Mikrotik RB960 (new)
Mikrotik RB962 (new)
Mikrotik RB1100 (new)
Mikrotik RB1200 (new)
Mikrotik RB2011 (new)
Mikrotik RB3011 (new)
Mikrotik RB Groove (new)
Mikrotik RB Omnitik (new)
Mikrotik STX5 (new)
Netgear DG834 (new)
Netgear DGN1000 (new)
Netgear DGN2200
Netgear DGN3500 (new)
Netgear FVS318N (new)
Netgear MBRN3000 (new)
Netgear R6400
Netgear R7000
Netgear R8000
Netgear WNR1000
Netgear WNR2000
Netgear WNR2200 (new)
Netgear WNR4000 (new)
Netgear WNDR3700 (new)
Netgear WNDR4000 (new)
Netgear WNDR4300 (new)
Netgear WNDR4300-TN (new)
Netgear UTM50 (new)
QNAP TS251
QNAP TS439 Pro
Other QNAP NAS devices running QTS software
TP-Link R600VPN
TP-Link TL-WR741ND (new)
TP-Link TL-WR841N (new)
Ubiquiti NSM2 (new)
Ubiquiti PBE M5 (new)
UPVEL Unknown Models* (new)
ZTE ZXHN H108N (new)

Why should this malware be considered important?
The authors (thought to be a group funded by a nation state) of this malware are using it to hijack vulnerable routers (500,000 are known to have been compromised across 54 countries) for possible use in cyberattacks against the Ukraine. Indeed, the malware more recently began seeking out Ukrainian routers specifically. The Ukrainian Secret Service issued a security alert on this on the 23rd of May.

The malware has the ability to do so by utilising previously publicly disclosed (defined) vulnerabilities to gain access and persistence (namely remaining present after the router is powered off and back on) within these routers. Last week the FBI took control of this botnet and are now working to clean up the affected devices.

The malware is very sophisticated and can persist within a router even if the router is powered off and back on (becoming the second malware to have this ability, the first being the Hide and Seek botnet). The malware is made up of 3 stages:

Stage 1: Is responsible for the persistence (mentioned above).
Stage 2: Providing the capabilities of a remote access Trojan (RAT)(defined)
Stage 3: Provides plugins for the RAT to extend it’s functionality.

The malware also has the capability to do the following:

  1. Wipe the firmware (see Aside below for a definition) of routers rendering them useless
  2. Inspect the data traffic passing through the router (with the possible intention of obtaining credentials passing over the wire to gain access to sensitive networks)
  3. Attempt to locate ICS/SCADA devices (defined) on the same network as the router by seeking out port 502 traffic, namely the Modbus protocol (defined) with the option of deploying further malware
  4. Communicate via the Tor network (definition in the Aside below).

How can I protect my devices from this malware?
The FBI are asking anyone who suspects their internet router to be infected to first reboot it (turn on and off the router). This will cause an infected device to check-in with the now under FBI control C&C (command and control, C2 (defined) server to provide them with a better overview of the numbers of infected devices.

To completely remove the malware; reset the device to factory defaults (this won’t harm a non-infected either but please ensure you have the necessary settings to hand to re-input them into the router, your internet service provider (ISP) will be able to help with this). This will remove stage 1 of the malware (stage 2 and 3 are removed by turning the router on an off).

To prevent re-infection: Cisco Talos’ team recommendations are available from this link. Moreover the US CERT provide recommendations here and here. Symantec’s recommendations are provided here (especially for Mikrotik and QNAP devices).

Further advisories from router manufacturers are as follows (their advice should supersede any other advice for your router model since they know their own devices the best):

Linksys
MiktroTik
Netgear
QNAP
TP-Link

Further recommendations from Sophos are:

  • Check with your vendor or ISP to find out how to get your router to do a firmware update.
  • Turn off remote administration unless you really need it
  • Choose strong password(s) for your router
  • Use HTTPS website where you can

A very useful and easy to follow step by step walk through of removing this malware by BleepingComputer is available from this link with useful guidance for multiple router models.

Thank you.

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References:
New VPNFilter malware targets at least 500K networking devices worldwide : Cisco Talos team
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Aside:
What is firmware?
Firmware is semi-permanent embedded software code that allows a device to carry out its function by having the low-level hardware carry out useful sequences of events.

What is The Onion Router (Tor)?
The Onion Router (Tor) is an open source (defined) project with the goal of protecting your privacy by passing your web browsing activity through a series of anonymous relies spread across the internet. These relays act like proxy servers which encrypt and randomly pass the traffic they receive from relay to relay.

This web of proxies is sometimes referred to as the Dark web (a portion of the internet only accessible using the Tor network). This makes tracing the source of the source almost impossible.
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Netgear Releases Router Firmware Update Addressing Security Issues

Early last week Netgear issued a firmware update for some of their consumer broadband routers. This update resolves 2 critical vulnerabilities (1x command injection vulnerability and 1x authentication bypass vulnerability).

Affected Routers (authentication bypass vulnerability):

  • JNR1010v2
  • JNR3000
  • N300
  • R3250
  • WNR614
  • WNR618
  • JWNR2000v5
  • WNR2020
  • JWNR2010v5
  • WNR1000v4
  • WNR2020v2

Affected Routers (command injection vulnerability):

  • JWNR2010v5
  • JWNR2000v5

Why Should These Issues Be Considered Important?
By default the affected routers administrative interface can be accessed by any user on the same internal network as the router. If WAN administration is enabled (a setting that allows anyone outside of your network to access your router) the above mentioned authentication bypass vulnerability is even more serious since a remote attacker could access your router’s admin interface without needing a username or password.

The command injection vulnerability could allow an attacker to issue a command of their choice to your router e.g. performing a file listing.

How Can I Protect Myself From These Issues?
If you own any of the affected routers listed above, please either apply the update (if it is already available for your router). If not, check if an updated firmware is available for your router that corrects this issue. If no corrected version is available it would be advisable to contact Netgear to determine if an update is planned. They may also be able to supply steps to mitigate the issue if no update is planned.

Netgear has issued updated firmware for some of the affected routers:

  • JNR1010v2
  • WNR614
  • WNR618
  • JWNR2000v5
  • WNR2020
  • JWNR2010v5
  • WNR1000v4
  • WNR2020v2

Please follow the instructions within the above linked to Netgear knowledgebase article to install the updated firmware.

Thank you.