Tag Archives: Microsoft

Protecting Against the Microsoft JET Database Zero Day Vulnerability

=======================
Update: 9th October 2018:
=======================
Microsoft’s scheduled updates for October 2018 resolve this vulnerability. Thank you.

=======================
Original Post:
=======================
In the latter half of last week; Trend Micro’s Zero Day Initiative publically disclosed (defined) a zero day vulnerability (defined) within the Microsoft JET Database Engine (defined).

Why should this vulnerability be considered important?
This vulnerability should be considered high but not critical severity. When exploited it can allow an attacker to execute code (to carry out any action of their choice) but they cannot initiate this automatically/remotely. They must socially engineer a potential victim into opening an attachment ( most likely sent over email or via instant messaging etc.). This attachment would need to be a specific file containing data stored in the JET database format. Another means would be visiting a webpage but 0patch co-founder Mitja Kolsec could not successfully test this means of exploit.

This vulnerability exists on Windows 7 but is believed to also exist on all versions of Windows including the Server versions.

How can I protect my organization/myself from this vulnerability?
At this time; a patch/update from Microsoft is pending and is expected to be made available in October’s Update Tuesday (9th October).

In the meantime; please continue to exercise standard vigilance in particular when using email; e.g. don’t click on suspicious links received within emails, social media, via chat applications etc. Don’t open attachments you weren’t expecting within an email (even if you know the person; since their email account or device they access their email may have been compromised) and download updates for your software and devices from trusted sources e.g. the software/device vendors. This US-CERT advisory also provides advice for safely handling emails.

If you choose to; the firm 0patch has also issued micro-patch for this vulnerability as a group of two patches. This was the same firm who micro-patched the recent Windows Task Scheduler vulnerability. As with the above mitigations; if you wish to deploy this micropatch please test how well it works in your environment thoroughly BEFORE deployment.

Thank you.

August 2018 Update Summary

Today Microsoft released updates to resolve 63 vulnerabilities (more formally known as CVEs (defined)).

This month also brings a new set of vulnerabilities affecting only Intel CPUs. I detail these more thoroughly in a separate post. However high level details are provided below.

Compared to previous months updates these have a smaller list of known issues (most of which have workarounds). Links to the relevant knowledge base (KB) articles are provided below:

KB4340731

KB4340733

KB4343885

KB4343892

KB4343897

KB4343900

KB4343909

====================

Adobe also released update for the following products:

Adobe Acrobat and Reader DC (priority 2, 2x CVEs)

Adobe Creative Cloud Desktop (priority 3, 1x CVE)

Adobe Experience Manager (priority 2, 3x CVEs)

Adobe Flash (priority 2, 5x CVEs)

As always if you use any of the above Adobe software, please update it as soon as possible especially in the case of Flash and Acrobat DC/Reader DC. Updates for Google Chrome will be available shortly either via a browser update or their component updater.

Please also review the out of band updates for Photoshop CC and Creative Cloud Desktop and apply them if you use these products.

You can monitor the availability of security updates for most your software from the following websites (among others) or use one of the utilities presented on this page:
—————
US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) (please see the “Information on Security Updates” heading of the “Protecting Your PC” page):

https://www.us-cert.gov/

A further useful source of update related information is the Calendar of Updates. News/announcements of updates in the categories of General SoftwareSecurity Software and Utilities are available on their website. The news/announcements are very timely and (almost always) contain useful direct download links as well as the changes/improvements made by those updates (where possible).

If you like and use it, please also consider supporting that entirely volunteer run website by donating.

====================
For this month’s Microsoft updates, I will prioritize the order of installation below:

====================

Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer (multiple versions of Edge and IE affected)

Windows Font Library

Malicious LNK File

Microsoft Exchange

Foreshadow (L1TF) Vulnerabilities: Allow information disclosure via speculative execution; are only locally executable (rather than remotely). This vulnerability may allow one virtual machine to improperly access information from another. More details in my dedicated blog post.

====================
Please install the remaining updates at your earliest convenience.

As usual; I would recommend backing up the data on any device for which you are installing updates to prevent data loss in the rare event that any update causes unexpected issues. I have provided further details of updates available for other commonly used applications below.

Please find below summaries of other notable updates released this month.

Thank you.

=======================
Nvidia Geforce Experience Software:
=======================
In late August, Nvidia released a security advisory for their Geforce Experience software for Windows. This update resolves 3 high severity vulnerabilities (as per their CVSS base scores). The necessary updates can be obtained from here.

=======================
VideoLAN VLC:
=======================
On the final day of August, VideoLAN made available VLC 3.0.4. This appears to be a security update for Apple macOS due to the following entries within the releases notes (however it is unclear if this overflow is exploitable by an attacker):

=======================
Text renderer:
* Fix head buffer overflow on macOS with some fonts
=======================

For Linux and Windows this version provides fixes numerous non-security issues. Please update to version 3.0.4 to benefit from these improvements.

=======================
Wireshark 2.4.9 and 2.6.3
=======================
v2.4.9: 3 security advisories

v2.6.3: 3 security advisories

As per standard process Linux distributions can obtain this update using the operating systems standard package manager (if the latest version is not installed automatically using the package manager you can instead compile the source code (v2.6.3) or v2.4.9). This forum thread and this forum thread may also be helpful to you with installing Wireshark on your Linux based system.

For Mac OS X and Windows, the update is available within the downloads section of the Wireshark website. In addition, a detailed FAQ for Wireshark is available here.

=======================
WinSCP:
=======================
In late August; WinSCP version 5.13.1 was released upgrading it’s embedded OpenSSL version to 1.0.2p (which addresses 2x low severity CVEs (Link1 and Link2).

=======================
OpenSSL
=======================
On the 12 June and 16th April 2018; the OpenSSL Foundation issued 2 updates for OpenSSL to address 2x low severity security vulnerabilities as detailed in these security advisories (Link1 and Link2). To resolve these issues please update your OpenSSL installations to 1.1.0i (released 14th August) or 1.0.2o (released 14th August) (as appropriate).

FTP mirrors to obtain the necessary downloads are available from here.

Downloadable Tarballs (compressed/packaged code made for distribution) are available from here.

It should also be possible to use the package manager of a Linux/Unix operating system to update your OpenSSL installation as mentioned within the section titled “Installing updates for Linux distributions” on the “Protecting Your PC” page of this blog.

=======================
VMware
=======================
VMWare issued two security advisories for the following products during August:

Security advisory 1 (addresses 1 vulnerability of Important severity):

  • VMware Horizon 6
  • VMware Horizon 7
  • VMware Horizon Client for Windows
  • VMware Horizon View Agent
  • VMware Horizon Agents Installer (HAI)

Security advisory 2 (addresses 1 vulnerability of Critical severity):

  • VMware Workstation Pro / Player (Workstation)
  • VMware Fusion Pro, Fusion (Fusion)

If you use the above VMware products, please review the security advisories and apply the necessary updates.

July 2018 Update Summary

Earlier this month, Microsoft made available their usual monthly security updates. This month 53 vulnerabilities more formally known as CVEs (defined) were resolved.

Among these updates are further updates for Spectre NG vulnerabilities (also known as Speculative Store Bypass vulnerabilities) making them available for Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1, and Windows Server 2012 R2 in addition to last month’s updates. The vulnerability known as Lazy Floating Point (FP) was also addressed this month. Finally the Spectre 1.1. and Spectre 1.2 vulnerabilities will be discussed in a separate blog post.

This month’s Microsoft updates have a long list of Known Issues detailed in the knowledge base (KB) articles listed at the abovel ink (due to the length I won’t reproduce it here). At the time of writing some of these issues have begun to be addressed by further updates (Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10) released by Microsoft. Others relating to the .Net Framework should be addressed soon.

====================

This month also saw Adobe release an update (priority 2) for Adobe Acrobat DC and Reader DC which addresses 104x CVEs alone. The remaining updates made available this month were:

Adobe Connect (priority 2, 3x CVEs)

Adobe Experience Manager (priority 2, 3x CVEs)

Adobe Flash (priority 2, 2x CVEs)

For Flash, updates for Google Chrome (not a separate update but via its component updater), Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer were made available. As always if you use any of the above Adobe software, please update it as soon as possible especially in the case of Flash and Acrobat DC/Reader DC.

As always; you can monitor the availability of security updates for most your software from the following websites (among others) or use one of the utilities presented on this page:
—————
US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) (please see the “Information on Security Updates” heading of the “Protecting Your PC” page):

https://www.us-cert.gov/

A further useful source of update related information is the Calendar of Updates. News/announcements of updates in the categories of General SoftwareSecurity Software and Utilities are available on their website. The news/announcements are very timely and (almost always) contain useful direct download links as well as the changes/improvements made by those updates (where possible).

If you like and use it, please also consider supporting that entirely volunteer run website by donating.

====================
For this month’s Microsoft updates, I will prioritize the order of installation below. A useful list of all CVEs for this month is present here:

====================

Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer (multiple versions of Edge and IE affected with many of the CVEs affecting the Microsoft Scripting Engine))(a previous update from May may need a further non-security fix)

Microsoft PowerShell Editor Services

====================
Please install the remaining updates at your earliest convenience.

As usual; I would recommend backing up the data on any device for which you are installing updates to prevent data loss in the rare event that any update causes unexpected issues. I have provided further details of updates available for other commonly used applications below.

Please find below summaries of other notable updates released this month.

Thank you.

=======================
Oracle:
=======================
Oracle issued updates to resolve a monthly record of 334 vulnerabilities. Further details and installation steps are available here. 8 vulnerabilities affect the Java runtime; all of which are remotely exploitable without an attacker needing to obtain a user’s username and password (their credentials).

If you use any of the Oracle products listed here, please install the appropriate security updates as soon as possible.

=======================
Apple:
=======================
In early July released a group of updates to resolve a large number of vulnerabilities:

Wi-Fi Updates for Boot Camp 6.4.0: Addresses 3x vulnerabilities

Apple iOS 11.4.1: Addresses 22x vulnerabilities

Apple tvOS 11.4.1: Addresses 18x vulnerabilities

Apple watchOS 4.3.2: Addresses 14x vulnerabilities

macOS High Sierra 10.13.6, Security Update 2018-004 Sierra, Security Update 2018-004 El Capitan: Addresses 12x vulnerabilities (also resolves the Intel Lazy FP vulnerability)

Apple Safari 11.1.2: Resolves 16x CVEs

Apple iCloud 7.6 for Windows: Resolves 14x CVEs

Apple iTunes 12.8 for Windows: Resolves 14x CVEs

Please see these links from Apple for advice on backing up your iPhone and iPad. Advice for updating tvOS is available here while the steps for updating the Apple Watch are available here.

As always; further details of these updates are available on Apple’s dedicated security updates page.

For advice on how to install updates for Apple devices, please see the steps detailed at the end of this Sophos blog post as well as this link (from my “Protecting Your PC” page).

=======================
Google Chrome:
=======================
Google released Google Chrome version 68.0.3440.75 to address 42 vulnerabilities. This version also marks all HTTP sites as “not secure.” This Google blog post discusses the change in more detail and this migration guide will be of assistance to website owners in migrating to HTTPS.

Google Chrome updates automatically and will apply the update the next time Chrome is closed and then re-opened. Chrome can also be updated immediately by clicking the Options button (it looks like 3 stacked small horizontal lines, sometimes called a “hamburger” button) in the upper right corner of the window and choosing “About Google Chrome” from the menu. Follow the prompt to Re-launch Chrome for the updates to take effect.

=======================
Wireshark 2.4.8 and 2.6.2
=======================
v2.4.8: 10 security advisories

v2.6.2: 9 security advisories

As per standard process Linux distributions can obtain this update using the operating systems standard package manager (if the latest version is not installed automatically using the package manager you can instead compile the source code (v2.6.2) or v2.4.8). This forum thread and this forum thread may also be helpful to you with installing Wireshark on your Linux based system.

For Mac OS X and Windows, the update is available within the downloads section of the Wireshark website. In addition, a detailed FAQ for Wireshark is available here.

June 2018 Update Summary

=======================
Update: 12th June 2018:
=======================
As scheduled Microsoft released their monthly security updates earlier today resolving 50 vulnerabilities. Further details are available within their Security Updates Guide.

In addition; there are 5 knowledge base articles detailing potential issues (all of which are pending resolutions) you may experience upon installing these updates. They are listed below for your reference:

4284819
4284835
4284826
4284867
4284880

====================
Adobe have not released any further updates since their out of band (un-scheduled) update last week.

As always; you can monitor the availability of security updates for most your software from the following websites (among others) or use one of the utilities presented on this page.
—————
US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT) (please see the “Information on Security Updates” heading of the “Protecting Your PC” page):

https://www.us-cert.gov/

A further useful source of update related information is the Calendar of Updates. News/announcements of updates in the categories of General SoftwareSecurity Software and Utilities are available on their website. The news/announcements are very timely and (almost always) contain useful direct download links as well as the changes/improvements made by those updates (where possible).

If you like and use it, please also consider supporting that entirely volunteer run website by donating.

====================
For this month’s Microsoft updates, I will prioritize the order of installation below. A useful list of all CVEs for this month is present here courtesy of BleepingComputer:
====================

CVE-2018-8267 | Scripting Engine Memory Corruption Vulnerability (a zero day (defined) vulnerability disclosed last month)

Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer (similar to many other months; multiple versions of Edge and IE affected with many of the CVEs affecting the Microsoft Scripting Engine))

CVE-2018-8225 | Windows DNSAPI Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

CVE-2018-8231 | HTTP Protocol Stack Remote Code Execution Vulnerability (especially if your server hosts a Microsoft IIS installation)

====================
Please install the remaining updates at your earliest convenience.

As usual; I would recommend backing up the data on any device for which you are installing updates to prevent data loss in the rare event that any update causes unexpected issues. I have provided further details of updates available for other commonly used applications below.

Thank you.

=======================
Original Post:
=======================
I usually write this post on or very shortly after Update Tuesday (the second Tuesday) of the month but with an Adobe Flash zero day vulnerability (defined) already patched and given that Mozilla have also released an update this month; I felt an earlier post would be appropriate.

I’ll update this post as further updates are made available. Thank you.

=======================
Mozilla Firefox:
=======================
Early in June Mozilla made available security updates for Firefox and Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release):

6th June: Firefox 60.0.2 and Firefox ESR 52.8.1 and Firefox ESR 60.0.2: Resolves 1x high CVE (defined). This was a heap buffer overflow.

Further details of the security issues resolved by these updates are available in the link above. Details of how to install updates for Firefox are here. If Firefox is your web browser of choice, if you have not already done so, please update it as soon as possible to resolve these security issues.

In the final week of June Mozilla made available security updates for Firefox and Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release):

=======================
26th June:
=======================
Firefox 61: Resolves 6x critical CVEs (defined), 5x high CVEs, 6x moderate CVEs, 1x low CVE

Firefox ESR 60.1: Resolves 5x critical CVEs, 4x high CVEs and 6x moderate CVEs.

Firefox ESR 52.9: Resolves 2x critical CVEs, 4x high CVEs, 3x moderate CVEs.

Further details of the security issues resolved by these updates are available in the links above. Details of how to install updates for Firefox are here. If Firefox is your web browser of choice, if you have not already done so, please update it as soon as possible to resolve these security issues.
=======================

=======================
Update: 19th June
=======================
=======================
Apple Security Updates: Update: 19th June
=======================
Following Apple’s release of security updates in the final days of May; they have made available further updates detailed below:

macOS High Sierra 10.13.5, Security Update 2018-003 Sierra, Security Update 2018-003 El Capitan: Resolves 39x CVEs (defined)

Safari 11.1.1: Resolves 14x CVEs

Apple iCloud for Windows (version 7.5): Resolves 17x CVEs

Apple Xcode version 9.4.1: Resolves 2x CVEs

Apple SwiftNIO 1.8.0: Resolves 1 CVE (For your reference: What is Apple SwiftNIO?)

As always; further details of these updates are available on Apple’s dedicated security updates page.

For advice on how to install updates for Apple devices, please see the steps detailed at the end of this Sophos blog post as well as this link (from my “Protecting Your PC” page).

Please find below summaries of other notable updates released this month.

Thank you.

=======================
F-Secure Security Products:
=======================
As mentioned in a previous post; 7-Zip has been updated to version 18.05 to resolve a vulnerability in it’s RAR packing code. The F-Secure products listed in this security advisory utilise this 7-Zip DLL (defined) and are thus being updated for the same reason.

If you use these F-Secure products, please install this critical update as soon as possible.

=======================
Google Chrome:
=======================
Google released Google Chrome version 67.0.3396.87 to address 1 vulnerability.

Google Chrome updates automatically and will apply the update the next time Chrome is closed and then re-opened. Chrome can also be updated immediately by clicking the Options button (it looks like 3 stacked small horizontal lines, sometimes called a “hamburger” button) in the upper right corner of the window and choosing “About Google Chrome” from the menu. Follow the prompt to Re-launch Chrome for the updates to take effect.

=======================
VMware
=======================
VMWare issued updates for the following products on the 11th and 28th of June to address 1 and 3 vulnerabilities respectively:

11th June:

  • VMware AirWatch Agent for Android (A/W Agent)
  • VMware AirWatch Agent for Windows Mobile (A/W Agent)

26th June:

  • VMware vSphere ESXi (ESXi)
  • VMware Workstation Pro / Player (Workstation)
  • VMware Fusion Pro, Fusion (Fusion)

Please review the above linked to security advisories and apply the necessary updates if you use these products.

=======================
OpenSSL
=======================
On the 12th of June; the OpenSSL Foundation issued updates for OpenSSL to address 1x low security vulnerability detailed in this security advisory. To resolve this please update your OpenSSL installations to 1.1.0i or 1.0.2p (as appropriate).

FTP mirrors to obtain the necessary downloads are available from here.

Downloadable Tarballs (compressed/packaged code made for distribution) are available from here.

It should also be possible to use the package manager of a Linux/Unix operating system to update your OpenSSL installation as mentioned within the section titled “Installing updates for Linux distributions” on the “Protecting Your PC” page of this blog.

=======================
Intel Lazy Floating Point Vulnerability:
=======================
Please see my separate post for details.

Responding to the Meltdown and Spectre Vulnerabilities

=======================
Please scroll down for more updates to this original post.
=======================
====================
Update: 23rd May 2018:
====================
For information on the Spectre NG vulnerabilities please refer to this new blog post

Thank you.

=======================
Original Post:
=======================
Earlier in January updates for Linux, Apple and Windows were made available to work towards addressing the 3 security vulnerabilities collectively known as Meltdown and Spectre.

Why should these vulnerabilities be considered important?
I’ll provide a brief summary of the two categories of vulnerabilities:

Meltdown (CVE-2017-5754): This is the name of the vulnerability discovered that when exploited by an attacker could allow an application running with standard privileges (not root or elevated privileges) to read memory only intended for access by the kernel.

Spectre (Variant 1: CVE-2017-5753 ; Variant 2: CVE-2017-5715): This is a category of two known vulnerabilities that erode the security boundaries that are present between applications running on a system. Exploitation can allow the gathering of information from applications which could include privileged information e.g. usernames, password and encryption keys etc. This issue can be exploited using a web browser (e.g. Apple Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge (or IE) by using it to record the current time at very short intervals. This would be used by an attacker to learn which memory addresses were cached (and which weren’t) allowing the attacker to read data from websites (violating the same-origin policy) or obtain data from the browser.

Browser vendors have responded by reducing the precision of JavaScript timing and making it more unpredictable while other aspects of JavaScript timing (using the SharedArrayBuffer feature) have been disabled.

More in-depth (while still being less technical) descriptions of these issues are available here , here and here.

How can I protect myself from these vulnerabilities?
Since these vulnerabilities are due to the fundamental architecture/design of modern CPUs; it is not possible to fully address them. Instead a combination of software fixes and microcode updates (defined) is more a viable alternative than re-designing the established architecture of modern CPUs.

In-depth lists of updates available from multiple vendors are available here and here. I would suggest glancing at the affected vendors and if you own a device/product from them; checking if you are affected by these vulnerabilities. A list of BIOS (defined) updates from multiple vendors are available here. Google Chrome has a Site Isolation mode that can mitigate these vulnerabilities which will be more comprehensively addressed in Chrome version 64 scheduled for release last this month.

At this time my systems required updates from Google, Mozilla, Microsoft, Apple, VMware, Asus, Lenovo and Nvidia. Many of many existing desktops are unlikely to receive microcode and BIOS updates due to be more than 3 years old. However my Windows 10 laptop has received a BIOS update from the manufacturer.

Are there disadvantages to installing these updates?
While these updates increase security against these vulnerabilities; performance issues and stability issues (Intel and AMD) after the installation of these updates have been reported. These vary in severity but according to Intel and Microsoft the updates will be refined/optimised over time.

Benchmarks (for desktops) made available by TechSpot show negligible impact on most tasks that would stress a CPU (defined). However any work that you perform which makes of large files e.g. databases may be significantly impacted by the performance impact these updates have when accessing files on disk (mechanical and solid state). For laptops the slowdown was felt across almost all workload types. Newer and older silicon were inconsistently impacted. At times even some Intel 8th generation CPUs were impacted more than 5th generation CPUs.

Details of the anticipated performance impact for Linux, Apple macOS (and iOS) and Windows are linked to. Further reports of reduced performance from Intel and Apple devices have also been recorded. Further details of a feature known as PCID (Process-Context Identifiers) within more recent CPUs which will help reduce the performance impact are provided here. For Intel CPUs, 4th generation Core CPUs and later should include it but any CPU manufactured after 2011 should have it (one of my CPUs; a Core i7 2600K has this feature, verified using Sysinternals Coreinfo). A full list of Intel CPUs affected by these vulnerabilities is here.

Conclusion:
With the widely reported stability and performance issues present it is your decision if you install the necessary updates now or wait until further refinements. If you experience issues, please report them to the manufacturers where possible and within online forums if not. More refined updates will only be created if a need to do so is established.

I’m in the process of updating my systems but will benchmark them before and after each updates to determine an impact and make a longer term decision to keep the updates or uninstall them until further versions become available. I’ll update this post as I gather more results.

=======================
Update: 16th January 2018:
=======================
A newly released free utility from Gibson Research (the same website/author as the well-known ShieldsUp firewall tester) named InSpectre can check if your Windows system has been patched against Meltdown and Spectre and can give an indication of how much the performance of your system will be affected by installing and enabling the Windows and/or the BIOS updates.

Please note: I haven’t tried this utility yet but will this weekend (it will help with the tests I’m carrying out (mentioned above). I’ll update this post when I have tried out this utility.

Thanks again.

=======================
Update: 24th January 2018:
=======================
As promised I gathered some early results from a selection of CPUs and the results for all but recent CPUs are evidence they will experience a potentially noticeable performance drop:

====================
CPUs supporting PCID (obtained using Sysinternals Coreinfo):
Intel Core i7 Extreme 980X @ 3.33 GHz
Intel Core i7 2600K @ 3.8 GHz
Intel Core i5 4590T @ 3.3 GHz
Intel Core i7 6500U (laptop CPU) @ 2.5 GHZ

CPUs supporting INVPCID (obtained using Sysinternals Coreinfo):
Intel Core i5 4590T @ 3.3 GHz
Intel Core i7 6500U (laptop CPU) @ 2.5 GHZ
====================

Explanations of the purpose and relevance of the PCID and INVPCID CPU instructions are available from this Ars Technica article. The results from InSpectre only show positive results when both PCID and INVPCID are present backing up the observations within the above linked to Ars Technica article (that the updates take advantage of the performance advantages of these instructions when both are present).

The results from InSpectre back up these findings by stating that the 980X and 2600K will not deliver high performance protection from Meltdown or Spectre. Since my PCs are mainly used for more CPU intensive tasks (rather than disk intensive) e.g. games and Folding@Home; I still don’t expect too much of a performance decrease. The older CPUs are due for replacement.

You may ask; “why am I so concerned with the performance impact of these updates?” The answer is that significant time and investment has been made into the above systems for them to perform at peak performance for the intended tasks I use them for. Performance and security are both very important to me and I believe there should only be a small trade off in performance for better security.

My next step will be to benchmark the CPU, hard disk and GPU of each system before and after installing each update. I will initially do this for the 6500U and 2600K systems and provide these results. The categories of updates are listed below. I will keep you informed of my findings.

Thank you.
====================
Update 1: Software updates from Microsoft for Meltdown and Spectre
Update 2: Firmware update (where available)
Update 3: Nvidia / AMD GPU driver update
====================

=======================
Update: 13th February 2018:
=======================
Sorry for the long delay (I was travelling again for my work). The above benchmarking is now taking place and I will make the results available as soon as possible. Thanks for your understanding.

=======================
Update: 27th February 2018
=======================
Earlier last week Intel made available further microcode updates for more CPUs. These updates seek to address variant 2 of the Spectre vulnerability (CVE-2017-5715). Updates are now available for the CPUs listed below.

As before, please refer to the manufacturer of your motherboard of your system for servers, desktops and laptops or the motherboard manufacturer for any custom built systems you may have to determine if these updates have been made available for your specific systems. Further information for corporate system administrators containing details of the patching process is available within this link (PDF):

  • Kaby Lake (Intel 7th Generation Core CPUs)
  • Coffee Lake (Intel 8th Generation Core CPUs)
  • Further Skylake CPUs (Intel 6th Generation Core CPUs)
  • Intel Core X series (Intel Core i9 CPUs e.g. in the 7900 and 7800 model range)
  • Intel Xeon Scalable (primarily targeted at data centres)
  • Intel Xeon D (primarily targeted at data centres)

Information on patches now available for OpenBSD and FreeBSD are located within the following links:

OpenBSD:
OpenBSD mailing list
The Register: OpenBSD Patch now Available

FreeBSD:
FreeBSD Wiki
Softpedia: Spectre and Meltdown mitigations now available

=======================
Update: 1st April 2018
=======================
As vendors have responded to these vulnerabilities; updates have been released for many products. I will describe these updates in more detail below. Apologies if I have omitted any, this isn’t intentional but the list below should still be useful to you:

=======================
Google ChromeOS:
=======================
Following the release of ChromeOS 64 in February which provided updates against the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities, ChromeOS 65 includes further mitigations against these vulnerabilities including the more efficient Retpoline mitigation for Spectre variant 2.

=======================
Sony Xperia:
=======================
In late February Sony made available updates which include mitigations for Meltdown and Spectre for their Xperia X and Xperia X Compact phones which brings the build number to 34.4.A.2.19

=======================
Microsoft Issues Microcode Updates:
=======================
As previously mentioned when this blog post was first published; updates for the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities are made up of software updates, microcode updates and firmware (BIOS updates) and GPU drivers.

Due to the complexity of updating the firmware of computer systems which is very specific and potentially error prone (if you apply the wrong update to your device it can render it useless, meaning it will need to be repaired/replaced (which is not always possible) Microsoft in early March began to issue microcode driver updates (as VMware describes they can be used as substitutes for firmware updates). Microcode updates have been issued in the past to address CPU reliability issues when used with Windows.

=======================
Intel Firmware Updates:
=======================
As with previous microcode updates issued by Intel in late February; these updates seek to resolve variant 2 of the Spectre vulnerability (CVE-2017-5715).

While Intel has issued these updates; they will be made available separately by the manufacturer of your motherboard of your system for servers, desktops and laptops or the motherboard manufacturer for any custom built systems you may have. You will have to determine from the updates those vendors issue if they are available for the products that you own.

Unfortunately not all systems will receive these updates e.g. most recent system was assembled in 2014 and has not received any updates from the vendor; the vendor has issued updates on their more recent motherboards. Only my 2016 laptop was updated. This means that for me; replacing the systems gradually is the only means of addressing variant 2 of the Spectre vulnerability.

Intel’s updates are for the Broadwell (5th generation CPUs i.e. 5000 series) and Haswell (4th generation CPUs i.e. 4000 series).

=======================
Microsoft Surface Pro:
=======================
Earlier this week Microsoft released firmware updates for their Surface Pro which mitigate the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities. This link provides further details and how to install the updates.

=======================
Microsoft Issues Further Security Update on the 29th March:
=======================
As noted in my separate post; please refer to that post for details of a security update for Windows 7 SP1 64 bit and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 64 bit that resolve a regression (an un-intentional coding error resulting in a previously working software feature no longer working, alternative definition here) which introduced an additional elevation of privilege (defined) security vulnerability in the kernel (defined) of those Windows versions.

=======================
Microsoft Offers Bug Bounty for Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities:
=======================
Microsoft have announced bug bounties from $5000 to $250,000 to security researchers who can locate and provide details of exploits for these vulnerabilities upon Windows, Azure and Microsoft Edge.

If such a programme is successful it could prevent another instance of needing to patch further related vulnerabilities after the issues have been publicly disclosed (defined). This is sure to assist the system administrators of large organisations who currently in the process of deploying the existing updates or who may be testing systems on a phased basis to ensure performance is not compromised too much.

Further details are available from this link.

=======================
Update: 6th April 2018
=======================
Earlier this week, Intel issued a further progress update for the deployment of further microcode for their CPUs.

A further 5 families of CPUs have now completed testing and microcode updates are available. These families are:

    • Arrandale
    • Clarkdale
    • Lynnfield
    • Nehalem
    • Westmere

==================
However a further 9 families will not receive such updates for the reasons listed below. Those families are:

      • Micro-architectural characteristics that preclude a practical implementation of features mitigating [Spectre] Variant 2 (CVE-2017-5715)
      • Limited Commercially Available System Software support
      • Based on customer inputs, most of these products are implemented as “closed systems” and therefore are expected to have a lower likelihood of exposure to these vulnerabilities.

==================

      • Bloomfield
      • Clarksfield
      • Gulftown
      • Harpertown Xeon
      • Jasper Forest
      • Penryn
      • SoFIA 3GR
      • Wolfdale
      • Yorkfield

This announcement from Intel means my Intel Core i7 Extreme 980X (from 2010) won’t receive an update. This system isn’t used very much on the internet and so the impact is limited. I am hoping to replace this system in the near future too.

Recommendations:

Please review the updated PDF made available by Intel (I can upload the PDF to this blog if Intel place it behind an account which requires sign in. At this time the PDF link still works).

As before; please monitor the websites for the manufacturer of your system for servers, desktops and laptops or the motherboard manufacturer for any custom built systems you may have to determine if these updates have been made available for your specific systems.

Thank you.

==================
BranchScope Vulnerability Disclosed:
In a related story; four security researchers from different universities responsibly disclosed (defined) a new side channel attack affecting Intel CPUs. This attack has the potential to obtain sensitive information from vulnerable systems (a similar result from the existing Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities).

Further details of this attack named “BranchScope” are available in this Softpedia article and this paper from the researchers. Within the above article Intel responded to this attack stating that this vulnerability is similar to known side channel and existing software mitigations (defined) are effective against this vulnerability. Their precise wording is provided below.

Thank you.

==================
An Intel spokesperson has provided the following statement:

“We have been working with these researchers and have determined the method they describe is similar to previously known side channel exploits. We anticipate that existing software mitigations for previously known side channel exploits, such as the use of side channel resistant cryptography, will be similarly effective against the method described in this paper. We believe close partnership with the research community is one of the best ways to protect customers and their data, and we are appreciative of the work from these researchers.”
==================

=======================
Update: 13th April 2018
=======================
AMD have issued microcode (defined) updates for Windows 10 Version 1709 to enhance the protection of their customer’s against variant 2 (CVE-2017-5715) of the Spectre vulnerability. Further details of these updates are available within these KB articles: KB4093112 and KB3073119

Thank you.

=======================
Update: 18th May 2018
=======================
Please refer to the beginning of the May and April security update summaries for further updates related to addressing Spectre variant 2 (v2).

 

WPA2 KRACK Vulnerability: What you need to know

Last Sunday, the early signs of a vulnerability disclosure affecting the extensively used Wi-Fi protected access (WPA2) protocol were evident. The next day, disclosure of the vulnerability lead to more details. The vulnerability was discovered by  two researchers Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) while examining OpenBSD’s implementation of the WPA2 four way handshake.

Why should this vulnerability be considered important?
On Monday 16th October, the KRACK (key re-installation attacks) vulnerability was disclosed. This vulnerability was found within the implementation of the WPA2 protocol rather than any single device making it’s impact much more widespread. For example, vulnerable devices include Windows, OpenBSD (if not already patched against it), Linux, Apple iOS, Apple macOS and Google Android.

If exploited this vulnerability could allow decryption, packet replay, TCP connection hijacking and if WPA-TKIP (defined) or GCMP (explained) are used; the attacker can inject packets (defined) into a victim’s data, forging web traffic.

How can an attacker exploit this vulnerability?
To exploit the vulnerability an attacker must be within range of a vulnerable Wi-Fi network in order to perform a man in the middle attack (MiTM)(defined). This means that this vulnerability cannot be exploited over the Internet.

This vulnerability occurs since the initial four way handshake is used to generate a strong and unique key to encrypt the traffic between wireless devices. A handshake is used to authenticate two entities (in this example a wireless router and a wireless device wishing to connect to it) and to establish the a new key used to communicate.

The attacker needs to manipulate the key exchange (described below) by replaying cryptographic handshake messages (which blocks the message reaching the client device) causing it to be re-sent during the third step of the four way handshake. This is allowed since wireless communication is not 100% reliable e.g. a data packet could be lost or dropped and the router will re-send the third part of the handshake. This is allowed to occur multiple times if necessary. Each time the handshake is re-sent the attacker can use it to gather how cryptographic nonces (defined here and here) are created (since replay counters and nonces are reset) and use this to undermine the entire encryption scheme.

How can I protect myself from this vulnerability?
AS described in this CERT knowledge base article.; updates from vendors will be released in the coming days and weeks. Apple (currently a beta update) and Microsoft already have updates available. OpenBSD also resolved this issue before the disclosure this week.

Microsoft within the information they published for the vulnerability discusses how when a Windows device enters a low power state the vulnerable functionality of the wireless connection is passed to the underlying Wi-Fi hardware. For this reason they recommend contacting the vendor of that Wi-Fi hardware to request updated drivers (defined).

Links to affected hardware vendors are available from this ICASI Multi-Vendor Vulnerability Disclosure statement. Intel’ security advisory with relevant driver updates is here. The wireless vendor, Edimax also posted a statement with further updates to follow. A detailed but easy to use list of many vendors responses is here. Since I use an Asus router, the best response I could locate is here.

======
Update: 21st October 2017:
Cisco have published a security advisory relating to the KRACK vulnerability for its wireless products. At the time of writing no patches were available but the advisory does contain a workaround for some of the affected products.
======

The above updates are software fixes but updates will also be made available for devices in the form of firmware updates e.g. for wireless routers, smartphones and Internet of Things (IoT)(defined) devices. For any wireless devices you own, please check with the manufacturer/vendor for available updates with the above CERT article and vendor response list detailing many of the common vendors.

Thank you.

Infineon TPM Chips Patched Against Disclosed Vulnerability

With the release of Microsoft’s security updates last week; Infineon published a security advisory relating to a vulnerability discovered by security researchers in 2012.

Why should this vulnerability be considered important?
The vulnerable hardware is mostly to be found within corporate computers from manufacturers such as HP, Fujitsu and Lenovo. Google Chromebooks, routers and some Internet of Things (IoT)(defined). The vulnerability allows an attacker to determine a private (defined) encryption key when it has been generated by a vulnerable TPM (Trusted Platform Module) using only the public key (defined). Once the private key has been obtained it can be used by an attacker to decrypt the contents of a Microsoft BitLocker encrypted hard drive, to digitally sign fake software releases, to sign malware (making it appear more legitimate) as well impersonating the legitimate owner of the private key.

This vulnerability also affects cryptographic smart cards, security tokens and other secure hardware chips manufactured by Infineon. An estimate 760k devices are thought to be vulnerable while the true number could be up to three times that amount.

While the researchers were able to verify an attacker could derive the private key from 1024 and 2048 but public key, they were unable to do so for 4096 bit key since “a 4096-bit RSA key is not practically factorizable now, but “may become so, if the attack is improved.” For 1024 and 2048 bit keys, the factorisation can be easily parallelised by x number of CPUs, reducing the time taken by x times (where x is the number of cores a CPU has) allowing completion in hour or days.

How can I protect myself from this vulnerability?
Microsoft’s advisory provides the recommended steps for systems using Windows or other Microsoft products e.g. Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), Active Directory Directory Services (ADDS) (among others). The updates they recommend are only a workaround for the vulnerability. The vulnerability must still be resolved by applying updates to the vulnerable TPM chips. This advice also includes clearing the TPM and re-generating the necessary keys only after applying the updates from Microsoft.

Similarly Google made available Chrome OS M60 to mitigate this vulnerability. Further links to other affected vendors are listed below:

Fujitsu

HP Customer Support

HP Enterprise Support

Lenovo

Toshiba

Thank you.