Despite the demonstrated successes and new security mitigations (specifically Credential Guard) of Windows 10 detailed by Microsoft in the link and PDF document listed below, security researchers from CyberArk have been able to obtain domain admin account (defined) credentials from the Local Security Authority (LSA) Secrets registry hive of Windows 10 using a technique similar to Pass the Hash (PtH)(defined):
Once obtained they injected the credentials into a newly created malicious service to achieve lateral movement (defined) which lead to the compromise of the domain controller (defined). The only requirement of the exploit the researchers developed was obtaining administrator access to a workstation within the domain.
While this could be considered a tall order, a well-designed spear phishing email (defined) with a malicious attachment or a malicious link targeting an unpatched or (zero day, defined) vulnerability on the workstation could be used to achieve privilege escalation (defined) and gain administrative rights (defined). Social engineering (defined) in combination with a malicious USB flash drive could also be a potential way of exploiting this. The methodology of how the CyberArk researchers carried out this exploit is available within their blog.
They also provide a list of mitigations for this exploit, many of which are well known and/or best practice. Microsoft responded to the team’s disclosure of this vulnerability that there will not be a fix since the system must already be compromised for it to succeed.