Google Android Stagefright Issues Patched

Update: 10th January 2016:
Further updates addressing newer issues within libstagefright have been made available. Please see this more recent blog post for details.

Thank you.

Update: 17th November 2015:
Further updates addressing newer Stagefright issues have been made available. Please see this more recent blog post for details.

Thank you.


Update: 5th October 2015:
A new set of security issues related to Stagefright has been disclosed. They are referred to as Stagefright 2.0. How to address these new issues is discussed in a more recent blog post.

Thank you.

Update: 13th August 2015:

According to this article, the patches that were intended to resolve the issues discussed in this post were incomplete. Further fixes will be made available in September. Further details are provided in the article linked to above. Thank you.

Update: 9th September 2015: The exploit code for the Android Stagefright issues as been released by the security researcher who discovered the issue. In addition, the researcher has worked with Google to create an app to check if an Android device is vulnerable. Moreover they are continuning to work with Google to add a check for this vulnerability to Android’s Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) to ensure all future Android devices ship with this issue fixed.

According to this article, the September update from Google to resolve the remaining means of exploiting the Stagefright has not yet been released but should be later this month.


Update: 15th September 2015: According to this article on Ars Technica, Google have begun to release the first batch of monthly security updates for Android for it’s Nexus devices. It will be interesting to see how quickly the OEM device makers and mobile carriers issue their updates. As this is the first time to release such updates it may take time for these update processes to be streamlined.

As mentioned below in the updated suggestions to protect yourself from the Android Stagefright issue, if you are using Mozilla Firefox for Android, please ensure that you are using the most recent version to ensure that you are protected from this issue. The steps to install updates for Firefox for Android are provided here.

Thank you.

Original Post:
In the middle of last week a series of security vulnerabilities were patched/updated in the Stagefright media playback service of Google Android smartphones (initial details of these issues became available a week before the updates).

There are 10 security issues in total assigned to 7 CVEs (CVE, defined). They consist of a buffer overflow and several integer overflow and underflow vulnerabilities (see Asides below definitions of these terms). These issues are present in all versions of Android since version 2.2 (codenamed Froyo) up to Android 5.1.1_r9 (codenamed Lollipop).

Why Should These Issues Be Considered Important?
While it is estimated that up to 950 million Android smartphones are affected by these security issues, more than 90 percent of them are protected by security mitigations (namely Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)) built into Android since version 4.0 (codenamed Ice Cream Sandwich). Additional improvements were made to the ASLR mitigation of Android in version 4.1 (Jelly Bean). However these mitigations make exploiting the Stagefright issues much more difficult but not impossible.

These security issues can be exploited by an attacker sending a specifically crafted Multimedia Messaging System (MMS) message (MMS, defined). To do this, the attacker only needs to know your phone number. MMS messages are processed automatically by most Android phones providing the attacker with the possibility of executing arbitrary shellcode (shellcode, defined) on your phone.

How Can I Protect Myself From These Issues?
Sophos provides practical advice on both mitigating the issue until a patch is available for your phone and how to obtain the patch for your phone. Further advice is available in Zimperium’s blog post and this CERT knowledge base article. Apologies that some of this information overlaps/is repeated but each link does contain useful information.

The good news that has occurred since more information was provided on these issues by the person who discovered them (Joshua Drake of Zimperium) last week in his BlackHat security lecture is that Google and Samsung have pledged to provide monthly security updates for their Nexus and Galaxy smartphones (respectively). LG have also pledged to do the same.

In addition, fixes to security issues will be made available to mobile carriers (mobile providers) sooner. This should result in a less complicated means of updating when future security vulnerabilities are discovered. The new monthly update process should keep Android smartphones much more secure in the future, this improvement is long overdue.

Update: 15th September 2015: In addition, if you are using Mozilla Firefox for Android, please ensure that you are using the most recent version to ensure that you are protected from this issue. The steps to install updates for Firefox for Android are provided here.

Thank you.

What is an integer overflow?

When the value of an integer being used by a computing device becomes too large to be represented accurately e.g. on some systems the maximum value of an integer is 32767 (namely 2 ^ 15 -1). If a value higher than this is used to access a location in computer memory, that value may wrap around (begin counting from the beginning again resulting in a very small value or in a value less than its minimum value).

At best this will result in the program using that value crashing or getting caught in an infinite loop (performing the same action again and again without ending). At worst, an attack could use an integer overflow to overflow a buffer (a region in computer memory set aside (allocated) to hold a data or a value). This happens because the extra-large integer value flows over into parts of memory that it was not intended to.

This can result in an attack being able to run/execute code of their choice by overwriting the return pointer of the program (due to the overflow that has happened) with a value of the attackers choosing. That value is placed there by the overspill into adjacent memory segments. When an operation is completed, instead of the program returning (using the location the return pointer is referencing) to the place where it was originally asked (called from) the program will instead go to the place in memory where the attacker has stored malicious code (since the attacker supplied this location by inserting a value of their choice as mentioned above).

That code can then run with the same privileges of the program which suffered the overflow. The overwriting of the return pointer was one reason for Microsoft adding defences (namely guard stack cookies) part of the /GS mitigations to Windows Vista and all later versions of Windows. The other reason was being able to detect such buffer overflows and terminate the program which had suffered the overflow. By terminating/force closing the program the attack is immediately halted and the system remains secure. The /GS mitigation is explained in more depth here, here and here.

In explaining the integer overflow attack I have also defined the outcome of a buffer overflow attack.

Update: 25th August 2015: An individual definition of a buffer overflow attack is provided in a more recent blog post. Further mitigations for buffer overflow attacks are also discussed in that post.

Update: 17th September 2015:
A detailed definition of a stack overflow is provided in a more recent blog post. This similar type of overflow can be a useful addition to the explanations of overflows in this post. Thank you.

Aside 2:
What is an integer underflow?

Integer variables within computer programming languages such as C generally can store numbers in the range of -2,147,483,647 to 2,147,438,647. While the range of an unsigned integer ranges from 0 to 4,294,967,295.

If 2 numbers are subtracted from another and the result is less than -2,147,483,647 this will cause an integer underflow since the result cannot be represented correctly and thus will be incorrect when the computer accesses that result. This is because only a partial result will be shown since not enough digits are available to represent the full number. If the result is used to access a certain position in an array (called an index) the position accessed will result in an out of bounds error most likely crashing the program.

An array is a group of memory locations within a program allocated to store data of the same type e.g. integer, floating point etc. It is similar to have a filing cabinet with multiple folders inside. Arrays would store data in folders starting from 0 e.g. folder0, folder1, folder2 etc. The index mentioned above determines the number of the folder in this example being accessed. Arrays are usually accessed using loops within a program.

The above example is for signed integers however underflows can also occur with unsigned integers.

In a similar manner to that described for integer overflows, underflows can be used to trigger the execution (performing actions)/running of code of an attackers choice.

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